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|Ecosystem Approaches to Management||
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|Ecosystem approaches to fishery management|
|Management actions aimed at conserving the structure and function of marine ecosystems, in addition to conserving the fisheries resource.|
An ecosystem approach to fishery management aims to protect and rebuild ecosystems, including species and their habitats. It adds to, rather than replaces, the approach of managing fish stocks one by one, or “single species” management.
Fisheries management will:
- be adaptive,
- be geographically specified,
- take account of ecosystem knowledge and uncertainties,
- consider multiple external influences, and
- strive to balance diverse societal objectives.
The transition to an ecosystem approach to management needs to be incremental and collaborative. Although scientists have been studying ecosystem processes for decades, long term scientific research is still needed.
The precautionary approach and risk-averse policies have been advocated globally as essential to fisheries management. One approach is to demonstrate that fishing practices will not damage the stock, habitat or other ecosystem properties before allowing fishing to increase. This will assist the ecosystem approach to sustain and restore both fisheries and their ecosystems.
Based on Making “Ecosystems” part of NOAA’s shared vocabulary. November 2003.
|Photo title: Habitat damage: the swath of a boat propeller is clearly visible in this Florida Keys seagrass bed|
|Photo credit: Harold Hudson, Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary|
|Impacts of fisheries on ecosystems |
|Impacts of fisheries on ecosystems are sometimes difficult to separate from environmental effects on ecosystems. Some of these possible fisheries effects include:|
- direct impacts of overfishing
- modifying community species composition and genetic diversity through selective targeting on species and particular size classes
- impacts on non-target species through low selectivity of certain gears
- incidental mortality from lost or abandoned gear
- direct impact on the sea bed through trawls and dredges
- destructive illegal “fishing gear” such as dynamite and poisoning.
Marine protected areas (MPAs) can make an important contribution to integrated coastal zone management and ensure improved management of ecosystems. There is a new website promoting the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF) in developing countries.
Shrimp trawling results in bycatch and waste, up to 12 times bycatch for every 1 lb or kilo of shrimp.
|Photo title: Shrimp trawl catch|
|Photo credit: Norbert Wu, Pew Collection|
|Other human impacts on ecosystems|
|Of course, there are human impacts on the marine ecosystem, other than fishing, described within the UN Atlas: |
|Photo title: Marine debris at Sardinia, Italy|
|Photo credit: Norbert Wu, Pew Collection|
|Title||Human dimensions of the ecosystem approach to fisheries
( DOCUMENT )
|Author(s) / Editor(s)|| de Young, Cassandra; Charles, Anthony; Hjort, Antonia|
|Description||This document aims to provide a better understanding of the role of the economic, institutional and sociocultural components within the ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) process and to examine some potential methods and approaches that may facilitate the adoption of EAF management. It explores both the human context for the ecosystem approach to fisheries and the human dimensions involved in implementing the EAF. For the former, the report provides background material that is essential to understand prior to embarking on EAF initiatives, including an understanding of key concepts and issues, of the valuation of aquatic ecosystems socially, culturally and economically, and of the many policy, legal, institutional, social and economic considerations relevant to the EAF. With respect to facilitating EAF implementation, the report deals with a series of specific aspects: (1) determining the boundaries, scale and scope of the EAF; (2) assessing the various benefits and costs involved, seen from social, economic, ecological and management perspectives; (3) utilizing appropriate decision-making tools in EAF; (4) creating and/or adopting internal incentives and institutional arrangements to promote, facilitate and fund the adoption of EAF management; and (5) finding suitable external (non-fisheries) approaches for financing EAF implementation.|
|Keywords|| ECOSYSTEM APPROACH TO FISHERIES; SOCIO-ECONOMICS; FAO|
|Type of Document|| Paper: Technical paper|
|Publication Location||Rome, Italy|
|Publication Date||August 2008|
|Series Title|| FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper|
|Related to Topics||Ecosystem Approaches to Management
(53395); Fisheries Governance
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