International maritime law is a set of rules governing relations between nations in connection with their marine activities, and in particular, by establishing the legal status and appropriate use of maritime space for the purpose of the peaceful use of this space and the resources within it. Maritime trade was the basis for the establishment of rules of law within the sphere of navigation. The laws developed as a result of a conflict with the local maritime customs and with piracy on the high seas. It forced ship-owners and merchants to meet and form some normal course of relations. In seaports, these customs reflected the interactions between the ship owners and the merchants, captains and crews of vessels.
THE MODERN LAW OF THE SEA
Modern international maritime law is used to regulate the relationships between nations of various socio-economic systems because of the sovereign equality of all nations, their mutual respect and peaceful coexistence. The basic rules of modern international maritime law were formulated during activity of the First, Second and Third United Nations Conferences on Maritime Law.
Text and images are from Man and the Ocean, a CD-ROM produced by the Russian Head Department of Navigation and Oceanography (HDNO).
Recent information on marine mammal - fishery interactions is reviewed. A species by species approach is taken for each of the major marine fishing areas of the world. Most recent studies have been devoted to the accidental entanglement or mortality of marine mammals in fishing operations. Several species or populations of marine mammal may be threatened with extinction or severe depletion from such interactions. Most of the fisheries involved are gillnet fisheries. Relatively few recent studies have addressed the possible competitive interactions between marine mammals and fisheries for food and fishery resources.