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|Ocean Dumping and Ship Wastes||
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|This topic deals with ocean dumping and ship wastes, deliberately dumped under controlled conditions. It includes nuclear waste disposal, sewage outfalls, land-based materials or those that derive from shipping, such as from cargo transport ships and passenger ships. For accidental discharge, see Pollution and Degradation.
|Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter|
|Internationally, dumping of wastes and other matter is controlled by the London Protocol 1996 to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter 1972 (the London Convention), administered by the International Maritime Organisation. |
The following materials may be dumped under controlled conditions
About 80-90% of the material dumped at sea results from dredging and currently amounts to hundreds of millions of tons a year. Of the total material dredged, probably two-thirds is associated with operations to keep harbours, rivers and other waterways from silting up. The other third involves new works. Future dredging operations and the requirement for ocean disposal are expected to follow current trends. The ocean disposal of dredged material represents only 20-22% of the total dredged and the remainder is mostly dumped in internal waters, or placed on land for disposal or productive purposes.
- dredged material;
- sewage sludge;
- fish wastes;
- vessels and platforms;
- inert, inorganic geological material (e.g., mining wastes);
- organic material of natural origin;
- bulky items primarily comprising iron, steel and concrete; and
- carbon dioxide streams from carbon dioxide capture processes for sequestration (CCS).
Approximately 10% of dredged sediments are heavily contaminated from a variety of sources including shipping, industrial and municipal discharges, and land runoff. Typical contaminants include heavy metals, such as cadmium, mercury and chromium; hydrocarbons, such as oil; organochlorines such as pesticides; and nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. Disposal at sea of these materials carries the possibility of acute or chronic toxic effects on marine organisms, and potential contamination of human food sources.
|It was recognized that ships, especially oil powered ships, could cause pollution and both the United Kingdom and the United States introduced legislation in the 1920s to curb discharges of oil resulting from operations such as tank cleaning. Attempts to tackle the problem at an international level were unsuccessful, however, and the outbreak of World War II resulted in the problem being deferred. |
The potential for oil to pollute was finally recognised by the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil 1954. The Convention provided for certain functions to be undertaken by the International Maritime Organization. OILPOL 54 prohibited the dumping of oily wastes within a certain distance from land and in 'special areas' where the danger to the environment was especially acute.
|Title||International Maritime Organization
( Institutional Contact )
|Short Institution Name|| IMO|
|Description||The purposes of the Organization, as summarized by Article 1 (a) of the Convention, are "to provide machinery for co- operation among Governments in the field of governmental regulation and practices relating to technical matters of all kinds affecting shipping engaged in international trade; to encourage and facilitate the general adoption of the highest practicable standards in matters concerning maritime safety, efficiency of navigation and prevention and control of marine pollution from ships". The Organization is also empowered to deal with administrative and legal matters related to these purposes. The Organization has over 160 Member States and two Associate Members.|
|Keywords|| SAFER SHIPPING; CLEANER OCEANS|
|Type of Institution|| Funding organization|
|4 Albert Embankment|
|UK SE1 7SR|
|Telephone||+44 (0)20 7735 7611|
|Fax||+44 (0)20 7587 3210|
|Web Address (URL)||http://www.imo.org/|
|Related to Topics||Offshore Oil, Gas and Mining
(1875); Ocean Dumping and Ship Wastes
(437); Pollution and Degradation
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