|Physical influences causing social stress|
The physical influences that an increasing tourism flow, and its consequent developments, have on a destination's community can cause severe social stress. Socio cultural disadvantages evolve from:
- Resource use conflicts: such as competition between tourism and local populations for the use of prime resources like water and energy because of scarce supply. Stress to local communities can also result from environmental degradation and increased infrastructure costs for the local community; for example, higher taxes to pay for improvements to the water supply or sanitation facilities. On Boracay Island in the Philippines for example, outside corporations have bought one quarter of the island, generating a crisis in water supply and limited infrastructure benefits for local residents.
- Cultural deterioration: Damage to cultural resources may arise from vandalism, littering, pilferage and illegal removal of cultural heritage items. A common problem at archaeological sites in countries such as Egypt, Colombia, Mexico and Peru is that poorly paid guards supplement their income by selling artifacts to tourists. Furthermore, degradation of cultural sites may occur when historic sites and buildings are unprotected and the traditionally built environment is replaced or virtually disappears.
- Conflicts with traditional land uses: especially in intensely exploited areas such as coastal zones, which are popular for their beaches and islands. Conflicts arise when the choice has to be made between development of the land for tourist facilities or infrastructure and local traditional land use. The indigenous population of such destinations is frequently the loser in the contest for these resources as the economic value which tourism brings often counts for more. As an example, in coastal areas construction of shoreline hotels and tourist faculties often cuts off access for the locals to traditional fishing ground and even recreational use of the areas. A study carried out in Pangandaran (Java, Indonesia), showed that village beach land, traditionally used for grazing, repairing boats and nets, and festivals, was sold to entrepreneurs for construction of a five star hotel.
Based on UNEP Production and Consumption Unit Tourism Programme
printed on 2013/06/20 13:39:23