|No. 2 - Mumbai, India||
Maintained by UNEP
|Previously known as Bombay, Mumbai is now the second largest coastal city in the world and Indias premier port with a metropolitan population of 18.042 million. Mumbai was once seven separate islands that have been joined into one landmass through three centuries of reclamation. The one island, totalling 436 square kilometres in area (approximately 170 square miles), is connected to the mainland by several bridges over which the city is spreading to the mainland.|
|Mumbai imports and transports a lot of oil products. The refineries and depots have been identified as areas that cause substantial oil pollution. Minor oil spills occur on a nearly daily basis along the coast of Mumbai and this has lead to much environmental degradation.|
Domestic wastes are discharged mostly in untreated condition due to the lack of treatment facilities. There are only available facilities for 390 million litres per day (MLD) as against the 1,200 MLD of domestic sewage that is generated. Due to such partial treatment, the chemical characteristics of the wastewater retain almost their original features and cause damage to the environmental water quality.
Exceptionally high concentrations of lead, cadmium, and mercury have been observed in Thane creeks on the Mumbai Coast, and sediment along the creeks and offshore stations are reported to contain significant concentrations of lead.
|There are some backwater areas of Bombay that still have mangroves but, for the majority, mangroves around Bombay are highly degraded. The Vikrohli Wildlife Sanctuary protects some of these mangroves and provides an educational service about the effects that pollution can have on the marine environment and its ecosystems. Some patches of coral can be found to the south of Bombay, and a rare star coral was even discovered in 2001 however the majority of corals have been effected by the oil, sewage, and industrial pollution.|
Mumbai has been identified as an area of environmental concern. Better treatment of sewage, tighter regulations on industrial effluence, and a comprehensive integrated coastal management plan that includes a far reaching study of wetlands, identifying areas for conservation, areas of loss and one that promotes community awareness is desperately needed.
printed on 2013/05/25 03:10:26