|Threats to coastal ecosystems|
|Major threats to coastal ecosystems from human activities as identified by UN marine scientists: |
- Coral reefs -- eutrophication, sediments, overfishing, destructive fishing, reef mining, the aquarium and curio trade, diseases.
- Wetlands -- reclamation and development, including landfills.
- Seagrass beds -- siltation, coastal development, eutrophication, physical disturbance. Coastal lagoons -- reclamation, pollution.
- Mangroves -- excessive exploitation, clearing for reclamation, development and aquaculture.
- Shorelines -- development, modification of habitats, erosion.
- Watersheds -- deforestation, soil erosion, pollution, loss of habitats.
- Estuaries -- reduced water flows, siltation, pollution.
- Small islands -- changes in sea-level, waste management, pollution.
- Continental shelves -- pollution, fishing, dredging, navigation.
- Semi-enclosed seas -- pollution, coastal development, fishing.
|GESAMP (IMO/FAO/UNESCO-IOC/WMO/WHO/IAEA/UN/UNEP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection). 2001. A sea of troubles. Rep. Stud. GESAMP No. 70, 35 pp. ISBN 82-7701-010-9|
printed on 2013/05/25 00:59:06