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Intenser demands on resources and natural habitats

Coastal and marine areas contain some of the world's most diverse and productive systems. They include extensive areas of complex and specialized ecosystems, such as enclosed seas and tidal systems, estuaries, salt marshes, coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves that are sensitive to human activities, impacts and interventions.
Pressures on these systems are growing more intense. As rapid development and population growth continue in coastal areas, increasingly heavy demands will be placed on the natural resources and remaining natural habitats along the coasts.
In islands and coastal areas, the main types of pollution in coastal waters include sediment run-off, sewage, solid waste, high nutrient loads, synthetic organic chemicals, oil, and pathogens. These result in eutrophication, and deterioration of water quality, which have adverse effects on coastal ecosystems and their living resources.

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