1. Boats made from bark
Boats with panelling from bark were known in Asia, Australia, coastal regions of East Africa, and North and South America, where the name canoe originated. For increased strength, such boats were built over wooden skeletons, the parts of which were tied together with plant roots, over which large bands of tree bark were stretched and tied.
2. Rafts made from logs
Rafts made from logs found an application for transportation of freight, especially on rough rivers and in shallow waters in all time periods since Man ventured into the water.
3. Boats made from animal skins
An Eskimo kayak, whose frame was made from wood or whale ribs over which skins of seals were completely sewn, except for an opening for the rower, whose outer clothes tightly sealed this opening, not allowing water to get by and into the interior of the kayak. For distant sailing, the Eskimos used spacious umiaks. Round boats of this type were used on most of the rivers of North and South America.
4. Rafts made from reeds, papyrus, rushes
More than 2,000 years BC the Egyptians built simple and well controlled rafts from dense bunches of dried papyrus tied together. Similarly-constructed rafts and boats made from reeds, rushes and bamboo are still used in South America and Central Africa.
5. Rafts made from pumpkins
In ancient Mexico, Nicaragua and in Peru by the Incas, rafts made from pumpkins were used for navigation on internal reservoirs and lakes. Dried pumpkins were spitted on bamboo sticks. On top, a bearing surface was covered by bunches of grass and reeds.
6. Boats made from twigs
Boats, wrapped around by twigs, were built in the "Land between the rivers" (between the Tigris and Euphrates), and also in Vietnam, Ireland and North America. A skeleton of boat was wrapped around by twigs, and then tarred.
7. Rafts made from bark
The inhabitants of the island of Tasmania built rafts from the bark of Eucalyptus trees. Packs of bark were connected by straps of bast fibre (cordage). Boards were made from more thin bundles than the bottom. They were stable in stormy weather.
8. Canoes and pirogues
During the Stone Age in Europe, canoes were made from the burned out straight trunks of oak or pine trees. They were also used by the inhabitants of the coasts of Africa, Madagascar and islands of the Pacific Ocean. American Indians named this type of canoe, "pirogue."
9. Boats with wooden planking
Boats with a wooden planking were developed and improved over many centuries. The planks were tied by basts and tendons of animals. Boats of this type, for example, Chinese junks, are comfortable, roomy and seaworthy.
10. Multi-hull vessels from wood (Catamaran, Proa )
For extra stability when going over ocean waves, the inhabitants of the islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans weighted a beam and placed it parallel to the boat, fastened by cross members. These were called outriggers (proa). For even greater seaworthiness of vessels, two boats were sometimes fastened together (catamaran), with cross bulkheads and increased decks and planking. Boat of these designs are still used at present.
11. Rafts made from skins of the animals
Such rafts were used by the inhabitants of treeless areas of the "Land between the rivers", Assyria and India. Rafts represented platforms, to which inflated skins of the animals were attached. Similar rafts without changes are still in use today.
12. Rafts made from jugs
On internal reservoirs in Egypt, India and North
Korea rafts were made from connected earthenware jugs with a flooring of
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